Civil War Louisiana (CWLA)

Civil War Louisiana (CWLA)
CWLA seeks to provide an online resource of any and all material of the Civil War relating to Louisiana with a special interest in the war in Acadiana in southwest Louisiana.

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

4th Wisconsin's Service in Louisiana

The 4th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment was a regiment that served most of its career fighting in Louisiana. From the Battle of Baton Rouge, Teche Campaign of 1863 and the Siege of Port Hudson. Below is the history of the 4th Wisconsin from The Military History of Wisconsin by Edwin Bentley Quiner (1866).  The 4th Wisconsin was organized in June of 1861 and mustered into U.S. service in July of 1861. It was transported to the east coast shortly afterwards to Baltimore, Maryland. From here, the regiment was organized to be part of Benjamin Butler's expedition to take New Orleans, Louisiana. The following images are pages 498-507. You can click on the images to read them individually.

Friday, February 24, 2012

30th Massachusetts' Tour in Louisiana, Part VI

Henry Warren Howe was a member of the 30th Massachusetts during the war. Howe's regiment was organized in December of 1861 and served in Virginia before it was sent to Ship Island. From February 12th - April 15th, the 30th Massachusetts garrisoned Ship Island. The regiment was attached to the Department of the Gulf in August 1862 and served in Louisiana until the summer of 1864. Howe wrote a book following the war titled, Life of Henry Warren Howe, Consisting of Diary and Letters Written During the Civil War, 1861-1865: A Condensed History of the Thirtieth Massachusetts Regiment and Its Flags, together with Genealogies of the Different Branches of the Family.

Howe's entries during June-July 1863, during the Siege of Port Hudson and immediately afterwards. This will end the postings of Howe's entries. There are some letters of Howe's we will past later.

June 17, 1863. Returned from Port Hudson. Had a tough time. Our company had one man killed and three wounded.
June 24, 1863. General Weitzel's Brigade returned after driving the enemy in the rear beyond Jackson.
June 25, 26, 27, 1863. Pleasant. Nothing new. On picket on Bayou Sara road. Returned at night. We occupy the same grounds that the enemy held at Clinton Plains fight.
June 28, 1863. Very warm. Temporarily in command of Company
June 29, 1863. Making out muster rolls; also the monthly returns.
June 30, 1863. Marched to-day. The storming party, consisting of four officers and thirty men, were mustered separately.
July 1, 1863. Pleasant. General Banks promised to be in the fort on the Fourth. One thousand stormers. My Captain is one of them. The rebel cavalry is hovering round.
July 2, 1863. March of eleven miles after 11 a. m. to cut off intruders. They got ahead of us. Letter from home. Family very anxious.
July 3, 1863. Expect an attack will be made to-morrow, as General Banks says the Stars and Stripes will hang over their heads to-morrow.
July 4, 1863. Showery and very warm. No attack; got plenty of corn and that is all. Everybody is growing impatient. Very dull day. On guard at night. >
July 6, 1863. Slight fever to-day. Took quinine for the first time in my life.
July 7, 1863. A despatch from General Grant. Vicksburg surrendered on the Fourth. We fired one hundred rounds at noon. Stated that twenty-seven thousand men were taken prisoners.
July 8,1863. The report that Port Hudson surrendered this morning. Hope it is true. Waiting in suspense. Hurrah!! It is confirmed.
July 9, 1863. Our brigade marched into Port Hudson to-day. The entrenchments are immense. Reason of surrender, they were out of provisions.
July 10, 1863. We arrived at Port Hudson at sunrise. Our division, General Weitzel's, goes to Donaldsonville. Unconditional surrender.
July 11, 1863. Pleasant. We made a reconnoissance four miles out. Drove the picket in; our company acted as skirmishers.
July 12, 1863. Our division moved out to-day on both sides of the Bayou; we went out four miles and encamped for the night; Lieutenant Brent Johnston was wounded.
July 13, 1863. On picket; we were attacked on both sides of the Bayou, our regiment on the right; hard fighting; our loss was eight killed and twenty-five wounded. I was hit by a spent ball on the leg.
July 14, 1863. Showery. News that General Lee had been whipped in Virginia with great loss. Wrote home to-day. The dead were brought in and buried, loss from four to five hundred.
July 15, 1863. The regiment was consolidated into six companies, eight officers for duty. I am in command of Company B, the color company.
July 16, 1863. Boats passed coming down from St. Louis and above.
July 17, 1863. Obtained a furlough to go to Baton Rouge to be mustered; I arrived at 4 p. m., and was mustered to date from September 1, 1862.
July 18, 1863. Took a stroll about the town and visited our sick officers. There were from five to six thousand wounded and sick in Baton Rouge.
July 19, 1863. Stopped with Lieutenant J. P. Haley, whose company is on provost duty. Lieutenant Johnston is quite comfortable. Received and wrote a letter home. Returned at 8 p. m.
July 20, 1863. Arrived at 1 o'clock p. m. and went to the bivouac. Nothing new.
July 21, 1863. Lieutenant-Colonel Bullock has gone to Baton Rouge. Two regiments are ordered to the city, New Orleans. The rebels are all gone to Texas.
July 22, 1863. Showery. On picket. Expect to be paid soon; am making out pay rolls.
July 23, 1863. All quiet last night, was relieved at 10 a. m. by the officers of the 161st New York Regiment. Worked on pay rolls.
July 24, 1863. Made out pay rolls for May and June. Mighty hard finding anything to eat except commissary stores.
July 25, 1863. Five of our officers are in New Orleans, on leave of absence; a certain few have to do all the work. The boys are getting sick again the same as last year.
July 26, 1863. It is rumored that we go to Baton Rouge; anything for a change from bivouac.
July 27, 1863. Very warm. The prisoners came down from Vicksburg, going to Mobile.
July 28, 1863. Lieutenant-Colonel Bullock and Captain Creasy returned from New Orleans. We have received a set of colors from Governor Andrew.
July 29, 1863. Received letters from home. Lieutenant Davis on picket. The regiment received two months' pay.
July 30,1863. Showery. Under marching orders to go to Baton Rouge. A brigade passed, going to Tibadeaux.
July 31, 1863. Went aboard at 2 p. m. Marched to the camp, tired enough. Our brigade is all up now. Colonel N. A. M. Dudley commands the division and will be in command of the city. All the principal Generals have gone North on furloughs. Lieutenant Gardner has returned, having been one year on furlough; he was on detached duty; was wounded last summer, August 5th.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

7th Louisiana at Camp Moore, 1861

Found this article in the New Orleans Daily True Delta on June 2, 1861. Its a letter from Crescent Rifles, Co. B became Company E, 7th Louisiana Infantry. 

Friday, February 17, 2012

Louisiana Rum

Joshua M. Addeman of the 14th Rhode Island [Colored] Heavy Artillery Battalion left us this comment on "Louisiana Rum:"

"At the same time, we were trying to make a permanent improvement in the way above indicated, we were troubled by difficulties, which were incident to army life at all times. Liquor, of course, would make trouble for us, and I think I never knew of any stimulant more demoralizing, in its way, than Louisiana rum. This fiery fluid would arouse all the furies in a man when it had him under its control."

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

30th Massachusetts' Tour in Louisiana, Part V

Henry Warren Howe was a member of the 30th Massachusetts during the war. Howe's regiment was organized in December of 1861 and served in Virginia before it was sent to Ship Island. From February 12th - April 15th, the 30th Massachusetts garrisoned Ship Island. The regiment was attached to the Department of the Gulf in August 1862 and served in Louisiana until the summer of 1864. Howe wrote a book following the war titled, Life of Henry Warren Howe, Consisting of Diary and Letters Written During the Civil War, 1861-1865: A Condensed History of the Thirtieth Massachusetts Regiment and Its Flags, together with Genealogies of the Different Branches of the Family.

Howe's April-May 1863 entries:

April 1, 1863. Pleasant. Inspection at 12.30 by the A. A. Inspector of the Division. No drill in the afternoon. General Emery's division has gone down the river. General Auger's is the only one left, consisting of two brigades, the 3d brigade, General Weitzel's, being down the river. Received a letter dated March 1.
April 2, 1863. Nothing new. Drills in the morning and in the afternoon.
April 3, 1863. Pleasant. Company drill in the morning, battalion drill in the afternoon. Lieutenant-Colonel has gone to New Orleans. Received some stores for our mess. Last week it cost us $6.27 each.
April 4, 1863. I am on guard.
April 5, 1863. Sunday. Our pickets have been drawn in. The details are quite large. Detailed to-day: four Captains, six Lieutenants, and two hundred men. The enemy are hovering about us and are growing quite bold. Some of our men have deserted. The vedettes were fired upon last night. I was relieved at 1 o'clock p. m. Visited the barracks in the afternoon. The entrenchments are very strong and built to resist any attack. Have been relieved from the command of Company H, as the officers have reported for duty.
April 6, 1863. Pleasant. Drills as usual. The trees, underbrush, etc., are being cleared away on the old battle grounds where we had the fight last Summer.
April 7, 1863. Tuesday. Pleasant. Drills. We are a well drilled regiment; ought to be by this time. Made out my company's quarterly return.
April 8, 1863. Pleasant. Quiet. No battalion drill to-day. Orders to fix up our tents so it will be cooler. I have a floor in mine, and raised it to allow air space underneath.
April 9, 1863. Quiet about camp. Men are at work on tents.
April 10, 1863. Pleasant. I am detailed as Acting-Quartermaster, because Quartermaster Tenny has been sent out on an expedition. Drew ten days' rations for the regiment.
April 11, 1863. Pleasant. Saturday. I am quite sick with the summer complaint.
April 12, 1863. Pleasant in the morning, showers in the afternoon. I am feeling better to-day. The sentence of the Court Martial was read at inspection this morning; four of our regiment were sentenced, some to Ship Island, to serve out the balance of their term of enlistment without pay.
April 13, 1863. Am better. This is the first time I have been off duty since last August.
April 14,1863. Showery last night. I am feeling better. Went to the mess to dinner. Wrote to mother.
April 15, 1863. Pleasant. Brigade drill in the afternoon. I reported for duty to-day. One year ago our regiment left Ship Island for New Orleans.
April 16, 1863. Pleasant. We practised at target firing this morning. Brigade drill in the afternoon. Captain Fiske is still serving on Court Martial.
April 17, 1863. I am on picket with Lieutenant Loring, his company being detailed on the Bayou Sara Road, which leads to Port Hudson. All quiet. I passed a lady and four children through the lines to Port Hudson. Was relieved at 7.30 the next morning.
April 18, 1863. Saturday. My company is detailed for picket. Lieutenant Porefi, Company C, is on with me. I am captain of the guard, which numbers forty men. We are on the Port Hudson road. Quiet all day. The officer of the day visited us at noon; said a cavalry raid was expected; seemed quite excited. I didn't scare worth a cent; in fact, hoped it would come off. However, I arranged my men so as to be ready, but instead a heavy shower came around, and the lightning struck a tree near us. The shock was felt by us all as though -we had been connected with a galvanic battery.
April 19, 1863. Sunday. Relieved at 9 a. m. Inspection at 4 o'clock p. m. It turns out that our forces had quite a fight at Brashear City.
April 20, 1863. Pleasant, but warm. Target practice in the morning, battalion drill in the afternoon. Fiske has gone to New Orleans to see his brother, who was wounded at Brashear City.
April 21,1863. Target practice this morning. Battalion drill this afternoon, after which I dressed in white pants and linen coat. Quite comfortable.
April 22, 1863. Pleasant. Am on picket with Lieutenant Brown, Company I. On the Clinton road. Some pretty girls came in from the country, but were obliged to take the oath. Occasionally one returns and will not take it. Then she is sent outside the lines.
April 23,1863. Believed at 9 a. m. Captain Ferris of our regiment was officer of the day. His wife went the rounds with him on horseback.
April 24, 1863. Friday. Our brigade are throwing up entrenchments in front of our camp.
April 25, 1863. Detailed for guard. Am not feeling well.
April 26, 1863. Pleasant. Nothing new. Am excused from duty. Letters from home; father received $50 from the express company for the loss of my trunk on the steamer which was sunk when coming out to New Orleans.
April 27, 1863. Am still off duty, but feel somewhat better. The men signed the pay rolls to-day. General Banks and his troops are up the Red River, having marched over the country from Brashear City, driving the enemy before them, with quite a loss on both sides.
April 28, 1863. Am still off duty. One year ago we were on board the ship North America at Forts Jackson and Philip.
April 29, 1863. Pleasant. Am feeling better to-day. The regiment is being paid to-day. I cannot receive any pay because I have not been mustered as an officer nor discharged as a Quartermaster's Sergeant. I have acted as Lieutenant since August 31, 1862, and yet have never received pay as such. I hope the matter will be settled soon.
April 30, 1863. Pleasant. Muster and inspection to-day. I feel about the same. My cold has settled on my tonsils and they are badly swollen.
May 1, 1863. Pleasant. Friday. Still sick.
May 2, 1863. Am feverish to-day and bilious.
May 3, 1863. Very hot, but convalescent. Have not had Surgeon. May 4, 1863. Pleasant. I am quartered in a house near our camp. Lieutenant Johnston is in the same room, ill with a fever.
May 5, 1863. Showery. Feel better to-day. My negro was cleaning my pistol when it went oft and hit another negro in the leg who was fooling with him. In the melee a soldier stole the pistol.
May 6, 1863. Pleasant. Found my pistol and preferred charges against the thief, one of Company B's men.
May 7, 1863. Pleasant. A regiment of cavalry arrived on the 2d, having come through from General Grant's army, Tennessee. It was a great raid, and they destroyed a large amount of property. They looked very rough and hardy.
May 8, 1863. Pleasant. I feel right smart to-day. Went to the mess room to dinner. Mail arrived; no letter for me.
May 9, 1863. Pleasant. Am feeling tip-top. All quiet about camp.
May 10, 1863. Dry and dusty. Inspection and review. May 11, 1863. We are under marching orders with two days' rations.
May 12, 1863. Our brigade marched at 4 o'clock on the Clinton road; the Illinois cavalry are in advance. Marched twelve miles, driving the enemy's pickets back; then crossed over to the Bayou Sara road and bivouacked for the night; a hard march and hot; made seventeen miles. My Captain was taken sick at night with congestive chills; he was very sick. Lieutenant Fay and I watched with him all night. Firing was heard at Port Hudson by tbe gunboats. We were nine miles from the Fort. I think we are to threaten while the cavalry make a raid on Clinton. I came near giving out on the march. It is reported that a brigade of the enemy are four miles from us.
May 13, 1863. Cloudy. Started at sunrise, the cavalry ahead. My Captain has gone to Baton Rouge. He is a little better. I thought he would die.
May 14, 1863. Resumed march at sunrise; went three miles, halted, while the cavalry went in advance and destroyed two hundred feet of railroad on the Clinton road. Some skirmishing Very dusty, hot. Returned to camp where we started from in the morning. We intend to destroy a bridge on the Clinton road. The cavalry drove fifty head of cattle in. Bombarding was heard at night. The Fiftieth still remain on the Clinton road. Chapin's Brigade is expected to the front to join us. Rain last night.
May 15, 1863. We still remain at Alexander's Plantation. Something has bitten me on one of my eyes, and it is badly swollen. Captain returned to-day. Good news from Joe Hooker's army. Fredericksburg captured, with many prisoners.
May 16, 1863. Saturday. Sixteen Confederate prisoners were brought in. Long roll at 4 p. m. Rain in the night.
May 17, 1863. Sunday. Inspection. Our muskets were discharged to-day. Eight officers quarter under two tent flies, lying on rails with blankets over them. The cavalry are busy.
May 18, 1863. Pleasant. Long roll at 1 a. m., occasioned by contrabands coming in.
May 19, 1863. Tuesday. Took a bath and changed my underclothing. I feel better.
May 20, 1863. The swelling has gone from my face. A scouting party went out to-day. Went to the rifle pits near Port Hudson. Two brigades and artillery are now here.
May 21, 1863. Orders to march at 5 a. m. No white troops in Baton Rouge except the Provost Guard. Two years ago to-day I enlisted for three years and sailed from Boston for Fortress Monroe, Va., in a Lowell company called the Richardson Light Infantry, Captain P. A. Davis. How short the time seems; I am now quite a veteran soldier. Marched four miles, when four companies of our regiment were ordered to the front for skirmish duty, my company being one of the four. Proceeded about half a mile when we discovered rebel cavalry, fired at them and they returned the fire; deployed and tried to flank them, when they opened with field pieces on us, consequently we learned their position. Our main force advanced and our artillery opened on them. After awhile they retired and we advanced to their works, called Plain Store. The roads cross here, running to Port Hudson, Clinton and Jackson. In the afternoon the enemy advanced from Port Hudson and the Bayou Sara road and opened fire. Chapin's brigade was then placed in advance. I never wish to see hotter firing. They charged on a battery we were supporting, on the Port Hudson road, but were put to flight by the 116th New York and the 49th Massachusetts; the 48th Massachusetts broke and ran. On the Bayou Sara road the artillery silenced them. During the day our regiment was skirmishing and supporting batteries; my company was the first to arrive on the Plains after the enemy evacuated. They had six pieces of artillery and four hundred infantry supporting them, Arkansas troops principally. Reinforcements have arrived from New Orleans. At night our regiment was ordered to support a battery at the cross roads. I think our division lost one hundred men in killed and wounded. Lieutenant Fred Norcross and two privates were wounded in our regiment. Hot fighting.
May 22, 1863. Cloudy; some rain. No demonstration by the enemy to-day. I visited the grounds where the enemy charged on the 48th Massachusetts. Some dead were lying about. A flag of truce for two hours. The enemy say they lost in killed, wounded and missing about four hundred. General Sherman's brigade has arrived from New Orleans. Banks has crossed the river from above.
May 23, 1863. Pleasant. Good news! Banks is three miles above us with Grover's division. Clinton railroad bridge is ours. General Grant has whipped Johnston at Jackson, Miss., and captured sixtyone pieces of artillery. Rain.
May 24, 1863. Pleasant. Orders to-day to march. Two days' rations. The troops proceeded up the Bayou Sara road. Two brigades went the Port Hudson road two miles, then went right and left of the road. Our brigade camped a mile and a half from the enemy's rifle pits, which can be seen plainly. An artillery fire on both sides opened and continued until sunset. Shells flew thick and fast. Grover's division on the right, Auger's in the centre and Sherman's on the left, at Springfield's Landing. General Banks passed us on the way up. Two of our companies supported a section of the New York battery, thirty-pound Parrots, at night. No firing at night.
May 25, 1863. Pleasant. The troops still hold their position. The enemy opened on our section in the afternoon and we replied. An attempt has been made by the enemy to cut their way through our right, but they were driven back. Our brigade marched over and formed a line of battle. There were four lines. Remained all night and returned in the morning; distance three miles. A shell burst right over my bunk in the afternoon; a piece went under my bed.
May 26, 1863. Quiet in the morning. General Dudley called us together and said the place was to be bombarded for five hours to-morrow, then stormed by the infantry. Volunteers were called for from each regiment in the division, numbering from 25 to 35. One Captain and Lieutenant to each squad to advance as a storming party. Fascines were being made to carry to fill the trenches. No trouble about volunteers. All our officers volunteered except one, consequently lots were drawn and Lieutenant Tom Johnston and Lieutenant N. K. Read drew the numbers. Although we are going into a terrible conflict, the boys feel gay and happy. We came to fight for our country, and why should we falter? The Stars and Stripes must be planted on their entrenchments. I think we have about sixteen thousand men, all told, the enemy about seven thousand.
May 27,1863, to June 14,1863. Advanced towards the fortifications from all points. Our brigade took the centre; drove the enemy inside their works. I was never so exhausted in my life. It was very hot. There were narrow escapes from day to day. We arrived to within from four to six hundred yards of their works and held our position behind trees, stumps, etc., firing at them whenever they showed their heads above the works. Private Mullen and myself stood behind one tree and a bullet struck him. I thought he was fatally wounded. Two grand assaults were made on them; both failed. For three weeks our regiment acted as sharpshooters in front of the entrenchments, after which we were ordered to Plain Store, where we remained until they surrendered. Our Color Sergeant, Francis Shattuck, was shot in the ankle. One of my Corporals, Martin Smith, 2d, takes the colors.

Friday, February 10, 2012

Fenner's Louisiana Battery

Lieutenant Colonel Charles D. Dreux's 1st Louisiana Battalion was originally part of the 1st Louisiana Regulars. In May of 1861, Dreux's five company battalion was ordered to Virginia. The battalion served on the James River Peninsular in Virginia until May 1862. On May 1, 1862, the battalion was disbanded (its term of service expired). When this battalion disbanded Captain Charles E. Fenner of Company A "Louisiana Guards" organized a large portion of the men into a battery.

Fenner's Battery held elections on May 4th at Jackson, Mississippi and were accepted in service on May 16, 1862. Here's an account by Mrs. Fannie A. Beers of Fenner's Battery.

Fannie A. Beers, Memories: A Record of Personal Experiences and Adventure During Four Years of War (1889), 227-243

Dear friends, when you read the caption of this page in my book of "Memories," do not accuse me in your hearts of favoritism. Of all soldiers who wore the gray, only one was nearer than others to my heart. I took no special pride in one organization above others, save in the command to which my husband belonged. Surely this is quite natural.

Who does not remember the epidemic of blue cockades which broke out in New Orleans during the winter of 1860 and 1861, and raged violently throughout the whole city? The little blue cockade, with its pelican button in the centre and its two small streamers, was the distinguishing mark of the "Secessionist."
By none was it more universally and proudly worn than by the youth and young men, who, in April, 1861, discarded it with their citizen's dress and began "the wearing of the gray," which they have helped to make a garb of honor and a glory forever.

When the Dreaux Battalion embarked for Pensacola, it was with a definite purpose in view, and a certain conviction that they would at once meet and vanquish the enemy. Their prowess was to teach the Yankee a lesson and to settle matters inside of sixty days. They fully expected to fight, and were eager to begin. Day after day, night after night, they momentarily expected an assault upon Fort Pickens. But they did not expect to be set at the hard duty of digging and wheeling sand hour after hour, and throwing up intrenchments under a burning sun.

Then the irksomeness of being under military discipline, which at first was frequently infringed. For instance, a party of Orleans Cadets overstayed their leave of absence an hour or two; "upon our return we found ourselves locked up in the guard-house for four hours and a half."

Here is an account of one of the monotonous days, transcribed from a letter of one of the Orleans Cadets, a boy who had been used at home to take his coffee before rising, a late, comfortable breakfast, and to walk down-town at his leisure on the shady side of the street, clad in the cool, white linen suit then so universally worn: "Wo get up at five o'clock to attend roll-call; at 6.30 get our coffee and our breakfast, which consists of crackers and salt pork; at 7.30, back to our tents and pack our knapsack, rub our guns, and get ready for parade at nine o'clock.

"We are now drilling at light infantry tactics (Hardee's), which occupies until eleven. We then wash our clothes, bring wood for the cook, also water and various other things; dine at two, and again drill at four until dark ; get our supper at seven; lie around until roll-call at nine; afterward go to bed to dream of home.
"General Bragg has just sent us word that we are to be exempt from hard labor at present."

It is not to be supposed that the men were confined to the rations here mentioned. All had money and could buy additional food; most of the messes had negro servants, who were excellent cooks, and boxes of goodies arrived continually from home. But, as I said before, the strict discipline, combined with deprivation of the glorious fighting in which they had expected to participate, was terribly irksome.

It was a most welcome order which transferred them to Virginia, and to the shady and delightful camping ground which I have described in a former article (Introductory). An order to join the forces about to engage in the battle of Manassas was countermanded on account of a movement of the enemy which resulted in the "affair" at "Bethel Church." They remained upon the Peninsula under General McGruder, who was successfully holding McClellan in check by appearing at every point assailed by the Federals.

"The forces under General McGruder were the only obstacle in McClellan's road to Richmond.

"Under these circumstances, McGruder, with superb rashness, threw out his whole force as skirmishers, along a line of nine or ten miles.

"The Dreaux Battalion bore a conspicuous part in all the operations of this campaign." Later, the battalion went into winter quarters.

Because I wish to contrast the condition of these men during the first part of their service and when, later, they encountered inconceivable hardships and deprivations, I will here give entire a letter from one of the battalion, kindly placed at my disposal, describing the " house-warming" which was given when they moved into winter quarters on the Peninsula:

"Camp Rightor, November 29, 1861. "I received yours of the 14th a few days since, and the 20th yesterday, both of which I will answer in one. The half-barrel of sugar was received long since, as you will see by looking over my letter to you about three weeks ago. The sugar came through in good order, also the white sugar, medicine, and coffee; the latter we use sparingly, mixing it with wheat,—one-third coffee and two-thirds wheat. The wheat does not seem to change the flavor in the least. Sweet potatoes are also used in camp in place of coffee,—you dry it, then parch and grind it; we have not tried that method yet on account of the scarcity of potatoes. All our cabins are finished at last; the tents are used no more to sleep in. Our house-warming has taken place. We made about ten gallons of egg-nog for the occasion; we used about six dozen eggs. Walton's mess was over, and a good many from the rifles; various members from both companies of the guards. Also the major, doctor, adjutant, and Lieutenant Dunn, Grevot Guards. They say it was the best nog they ever drank; the house was crowded. The nog gave out, and we had to produce the jug. If we had had our sick messmate from Williamsburg, we would have had noise (Noyes) all night, but as it was it only lasted until one o'clock. Everybody in camp seemed to be trying to make more noise than his neighbor. Beard told us next day that it was a very well conducted affair, that everything passed off so quietly with so much nog as that. He evidently went to bed early after ho left us. 1 saw Posey yesterday, he was looking badly, seeming to have been troubled with the chills for some time. Since it has become so cold we have had to take the cook in the house, which makes eleven. This boy out snores creation, beating anything you ever heard ; he woke me up last night, and I thought it was the dog Cadet barking outside at the door.

"If you get this before ma sends off the expected-to-besent package, and if there is some room, you might put in one blanket. Since we sleep two in a bunk, we spread our blankets across the hunk. Brunet has three, and I have three, which makes it equal to six apiece. Send the blanket; it shall do its share of warming, I assure you. I suppose what ma sends will be my share of Christmas in New Orleans. Our turkeys look droopy, and there is no telling when they will peg out. We keep the gobbler's spirits up by making him fight. The camp is full of turkeys, and we make ours fight every day. I have plenty of clothes and socks: I Have over half a dozen of woollen socks.

"The Gopher Mess send their best regards.
"Yours affectionately,
"Co. A, Orleans Cadets, "Louisiana Battalion, Williamsburg, Virginia."

The formation of Fenner's Louisiana Battery was attended by tremendous difficulties and discouragements, patiently met, nobly overcome, by the gallant officer who found himself at last at the head of a company composed of men who, whether considered in the aggregate, or as individuals, had not their superiors in the Confederate armies,—intelligently brave, enthusiastic, patriotic, gentlemen by birth, breeding, and education, whom chivalrous devotion to duty forbade to murmur at any hardship which fell to their lot. As officers or private soldiers, looking to the future of the Confederacy as to something assured; never despairing, ready to follow wherever and whenever a " hope" was led, no matter how "forlorn."

The record of this little band of devoted patriots has never been thoroughly known or understood as it deserves to be. Only once has its history appeared in print,—upon the occasion of a reunion of the command held in New Orleans, May 12, 1884. With great pride I transfer to these pages part of an article which then appeared in the Times-Democrat of that date:

"As the term of service (twelve months) of the corps began to approach its end, Captain Charles B. Fenner, commanding the company of Louisiana Guards, conceived the idea of raising a battery of artillery. He had no difficulty in getting the men, a sufficient number volunteering at once from the battalion, but he encountered other most disheartening obstacles. The War Department-had not the means of equipping the artillery companies already in service, and authorized to be raised, and he could only obtain the authority to raise this battery on condition of furnishing his own armament of guns. He succeeded, however, in making arrangements with his friends in New Orleans to furnish the guns, and the battery bad been made and was ready for him in New Orleans, when the city fell, and it was captured.

"Upon the discharge of the battalion, however, he changed his rendezvous to Jackson, Mississippi, and proceeded there to try and accomplish his object. Many of those who intended to join him looked upon his enterprise as so hopeless that they abandoned it and joined other commands. A sufficient number, however, rallied around him at Jackson, Mississippi, and, on the 4th of May, 1862, his company was organized by the election of officers, and on the 16th was mustered into service. Meantime, the chance of getting an armament was hopeless indeed. At last, however, Captain Fenner found, lying abandoned by the railroad, the ruins of a battery, which had been destroyed on the eve of evacuating New Orleans, under the apprehension that it would have to be left, but was subsequently brought off. The guns were spiked and rammed with wads and balls, the spokes and felloes of the wheels were cut, the trails hacked to pieces, and all the ordinary means of disabling a battery had been resorted to. The task of reconstructing this ruined battery was undertaken, and, after much difficulty, successfully accomplished.

"Then came the trouble of obtaining horses, harness, and other equipments, which had to be wrested from reluctant and ill-supplied quartermasters and ordnance officers. At last, however, all difficulties were overcome. A few weeks of active drilling, and Fenner's Battery was ready for the field. On August 20, 1862, it received marching-orders for Port Hudson. Arrived there just after the evacuation of Baton Rouge by the Federal forces. Ordered on to Baton Rouge. Remained there a few days, when the battery returned to Port Hudson with the exception of one section, which was left with one regiment of infantry to occupy the city. Held it till retaken by the Federals in December, when our small force successfully evacuated it under the fire of the enemy's gunboats, and before the advance of their infantry, which had landed. The battery remained at Port Hudson, participating in all the operations of the forces there till May 1, 1863, when it was ordered to Williams's Bridge to intercept Grierson's raid, arriving there a few hours after the raid had passed.

"May 7. Ordered to Jackson, Mississippi, with Marcy's Brigade.

"Participated in the Big Black campaign of General Johnston.

"In position at Jackson, and engaged in the fighting around that place from 10th to 16th of July, losing several men killed and wounded.

"After the evacuation of Jackson, retreated with Johnston's army to Forrest and Morton. Thence to Enterprise, and from there to Mobile, and remained there till November 21, 1863, when ordered to the Army of Tennessee.

"Reached Dalton November 27, just after the defeat at Missionary Ridge.

"Spent the winter in building winter-quarters successively at Dalton and Kingston, which were evacuated before occupied.

"On the 1st of May, 1864, General Sherman advanced from Chattanooga toward Dalton, and the great Georgia campaign commenced. From that time till the 1st of September following, the Army of Tennessee was almost constantly engaged with the enemy.

"May 8 to 12. Battery in position at Mill Creek Gap, near Dalton, and engaged with the enemy. They fell back to Resaca. Engaged on the 14th of May in supporting charge by Stewart's Division upon tho enemy.

"On tho 15th, battle of Oostenaula. The battery was divided, one section on each side of a battery in a fortified work. The charge of the enemy was most desperate, and they captured and held the fortification, but were repulsed from the front of each section of Fenner's Batter}', which held their positions till night, and then evacuated. Retreat of the army was continued to Calhoun, Adairsville, Cassville, Centerville; engaged more or less at each of those points.

"On the 25th of May occurred the battle of Now Hope Church, one of the finest fights of the war. It was an assault of the whole of Hooker's Corps on Stewart's Division. The attack was almost a complete surprise. Fenner's Battery went into position at a gallop, had several horses killed while unlimbering, and fired canister at the first discharge. The engagement was continuous for two hours, during the whole of which time, owing to the thickness of the woods, the enemy's skirmishers were enabled to maintain their position within from fifty to one hundred yards, but their repeated charges were well repulsed. The enemy's loss was terrific, admitted to be over two thousand, far exceeding the number of our men engaged. Fenner's Battery lost twenty-three men killed and wounded, and nearly all of its horses, and was specially complimented in orders for gallantry and efficiency.

"From this point, in continual conflict with the enemy, the army gradually fell back till it reached Atlanta, around which continuous fighting was kept up, until its evacuation on the 2d of September.

"1st September. Battle of Jonesboro', in which the battery was engaged.

"This may be considered the end of the Georgia campaign.

"After brief rest at Lovejoy's Station, the army commenced its long march to Tennessee by Centre, Jacksonville, Gadsden, and Florence.

"Left Florence November 20; arrived at Columbia, Tennessee, and struck the enemy there November 26. Enemy evacuate on the 28th.

"November 30. Battle of Franklin.

"December 2. Reached Nashville.

"December 6. Fenner's Battery was ordered to join General Forrest's command at Murfreesboro'; participated in the battle of Murfreesboro' on the 8th, and was still with Forrest when the battles of Nashville were fought, on the 15th and 16th, and the great retreat commenced.

"In this fight, which is called the second of Murfreesboro', it will be remembered that Bates's Infantry Division was stampeded early in the action, causing the loss of several guns of the Fifth Company, Washington Artillery. On this occasion (one of the few instances, if not the only one during the war) six pieces of field artillery, being four Napoleons of Fenner's Battery and two rifled pieces of Missouri Battery, placed in position by General Forrest,—their horses having been sent to the rear across Stone River,—held the lino for three-quarters of an hour against the enemy's entire force until the infantry and wagons had safely crossed the river on the only bridge half a mile in the rear.

"As soon as the news reached Forrest, his command started across from Murfreesboro' to join the main column at Columbia. There was no turnpike, the roads were in awful condition, the horses reduced and broken down, and a continuous rain pouring down. Two of the guns reached Columbia in safety; the other two would have been brought through but for the swelling of a creek by the rain, which it was impossible to cross,—the only guns the battery ever lost. The men remained by them alone till Columbia was evacuated by our forces and the enemy within a mile of them, when they destroyed their pieces, swam Duck River, and started after the army. The terrors of the retreat from Tennessee in midwinter, the men shoeless, without blankets, and almost without clothes, need not be recounted here.

"January 10. The battery reached Columbus, Mississippi.

"January 31. Ordered to Mobile. Remained there as heavy artillery till 11th of April, when it was evacuated; go up the river to Demopolis; from there to Cuba Station, Meridian, where, on the 10th of May, arms are laid down and the battery with the rest of General Taylor's army."
A member of the battery, who was an exceptional soldier, and who still cherishes and venerates everything that reminds him of the glorious past, has kindly placed in my hands some letters which I am permitted to copy and here subjoin, feeling sure that they will prove quite as interesting as the numerous documents of the kind published in the "lives" of those high in authority, although they contain only the experience of a young private soldier, conveyed in dutiful letters to his mother. Some of these will suggest the changes which befell the soldiers who gave the house-warming in Virginia, and the difference between the first and last years of the war.

"Near New Hope Church, Georgia, "
May 26, 1864.
"Mr Dear,—Knowing that you will be anxious to hear from me and the company after the late fight, I avail myself of the first opportunity to write. Stewart's Division of Hood's Corps arrived in the vicinity of the Church yesterday morning. Soon after skirmishes commenced, moving a mile off, and gradually approached us. By 3 P.m. it commenced to near us, and 5 P.m. found us galloping into position. Clayton's Brigade supported us behind log works, which served as an excellent shelter for us from the minies. The Yankees approached under cover of the woods to within two or three hundred yards, where they made their lines. As soon as we could see where they were we commenced firing into them, and kept it up until the ammunition of the limber was expended. They made several charges, but were repulsed by the infantry and artillerj' each time. Our loss was heavy (artilleiy), the infantry not being as much exposed as we were; their casualties were slight. At our howitzer Willie Brunet was killed after firing some fifteen rounds. He was killed in the act of giving the command to fire, the ball piercing him above the left eye. Early had four wounded,—viz., Vaudry, painfully in the breast; J. T. Pecot, painfully in the back; Eaton, in the wrist; Corporal J , ball
in the side. At Carly's piece none were killed, but McGrath and Joe Murphy were shot through the arm,— the latter it is thought will lose his arm,—and young Ford. At Woester's piece, R. A. Bridges was killed, Joe Bridges was shot in the leg; McCarty, in the foot; Dunbar, in the thigh; Lieutenant Cluverius, wounded in the side; Joe Reeves, through the leg; St. Germain, foot. The loss in horses was heavy. Woester had all eight horses of his piece killed, and his riding-horse. Lieutenant Cluverius lost his horse 'Rebel,' who was shot in the head, and died. Our detachment had three wounded; the horses saved themselves by running away. In all, we lost twenty-three, and perhaps more. Stanford was on our left, they lost about fifteen killed and wounded; Oliver, sixteen. John Cooper has a welt on his shin from a spent ball; John was driving and lost both horses. I was number six at the limber until Willie was killed, when I acted as gunner. McGregor ranks me, and hereafter I expect to be caisson-corporal. General Clayton paid us the very highest compliment upon the manner in which the guns were managed; 'too flattering to be repeated,' as Captain Fenner remarked. 'Owing to the loss in horses, men, and ammunition expended,' we were relieved and sent to the rear to replenish. A couple of days may right us, when we will again be in the front. Stewart did the fighting yesterday; I don't believe any other division was engaged. A part of Polk's (if not all) arrived about midnight. Since Polk's Corps joined us, I have found several acquaintances, among whom are John Butler, lieutenant of engineers; the two Spencer boys, in Cowan's Battery; and Ed. Hoops, in Tenth Mississippi. They were all apparently well when I saw them last, and inquired particularly of you.

Respectfully Yours,

I enclose a letter that we received from General Clayton on a copy of the letter to the captain, with an oxtract from the general's report of the battle of New Hope Church:

"Headquarters, Clayton's Brigade, "
June 7, 1864.
"Captain,—I take pleasure in making for you the following extract from my report of the battle of New Hope Church. 'With renewed expression of the profoundest acknowledgments for the signal service you did the country, and particularly my brigade, of which every officer and man speak in the highest terms, "Believe me, dear captain,
"Yours always,
"A. D. Clayton,
(" Extract.")
"For its conduct in the engagement too much praise cannot be awarded to Fenner's Louisiana Battery, which occupied a position along my line. Although the enemy came within fifty or sixty yards of the guns, every officer and man stood bravely to his post."

The following letter describing a Christmas dinner in 1864 presents so true a picture of the situation, and at the same time so well illustrates the soldierly spirit of the battery, that I publish it in full:
"Rienza, Mississippi, January 4, 1866.

"My Dear Mother,—An opportunity of writing now offers,—the first since our leaving Florence, before going on our Tennessee campaign, which has finally terminated so disastrously for us. Had orders been obeyed and carried out at Spring Hill, there never would" have been a fight at Nashville. By some misunderstanding, the Yankee army was allowed to cross at the above-named place without being attacked. We followed on their tracks to Franklin, picking up stragglers and prisoners all along the way, to the amount of several hundred.

"We left Columbia at daylight, marched twenty-three miles, and fought the battle of Franklin before dark. Our battery did not take part in the battle: we were in position, but, owing to the close proximity of the two armies, could not fire,—we were under fire, but no one was hurt. Stewart's and Cheatam's Corps with one division from our corps, fought the battle. I passed over the field next morning and saw enough for never wanting to see another such field. The men were actually lying in some portions of the trenches three deep. Ours being the attacking party suffered severely,—almost an equal loss to the Yankees. Our loss was about forty-five hundred, and theirs five thousand, including prisoners. Next day we started for Nashville, eighteen miles distant. Our battery remained there till the 5th, when we were ordered to Murfreesboro' to aid General Forrest in reducing that place. On the 6th we arrived there, took position, and built works. Next day, on account of a flank movement by the enemy, we had to move our position back a mile. Soon the enemy appeared in our front, and skirmishing commenced. The infantry fell back, leaving the artillery to do the fighting without one musket to protect us. We stayed as long as we could, when we finally had to follow the footsteps of the infantrymen. The fight—there was none—nothing but a big scare and run. General Forrest sent General Bateman with his division to Nashville, but kept our battery with him. We lost one man at Murfreesboro', I. T. Preston, brother of the Prestons of Carrollton. We stayed in camp for seven days when General Forrest determined to attack again and took one section of the battery with him,—the other section, the one I belong to, was sent to protect his wagon-train. Two days afterwards the army commenced its retreat from Nashville (the particulars of which no doubt you have already learned). Our march was over a muddy and rugged road for fifty miles to Columbia. It was the severest march I ever undertook: we pushed and worked at the wheels all the time. The horses finally broke down, and we had to take oxen and yoke them in and drive them. Can you imagine me up to my knees in mud, barefooted and muddy, with a long pole, driving oxen. It was a very picturesque scene, and no doubt the 'Yankee Illustrators' would pay a good price for such a picture. I was about on a par with two-thirds of the others, and we made as merry as possible under the circumstances. We had no rations, and lived entirely on the people: they treated us splendidly, gave us more than we could eat, and left us duly indebted to them for their many kindnesses. I for one will never forget the hospitality received in Tennessee. We recrossed the Tennessee on the 26th of December. Christmas day was quite an event to us. We were then out of Tennessee, in a poor country, and could get very little to eat. All day myself and mess were without food; late in the evening we saw a butcher-pen and made for it; all we could get was oxtails and a little tallow procured by a good deal of industry from certain portions of the beef. One of the boys procured a lot of bran and unbolted flour and at twelve o'clock at night we sat down at our Christmas dinner (oxtail soup and biscuit), and if I ever enjoyed a meal I enjoyed that one. The army is retiring to Okolona and the artillery to Columbus, Mississippi. The barefooted men were left here to go by rail. When we get away I cannot say. We had to leave two of our pieces stuck in the mud, the other side of Columbus; the third piece was thrown in the river; the fourth piece, the one I am interested in, was saved and represents the battery."

And here is the last, written from Demopolis, Alabama, April 15, 1865:
"Dear Mother,—You have heard ere this of the evacuation of Mobile, which happened on the day of the eleventh. After the fall of Spanish Fort and Blakely, all hope of holding Mobile was given up. The works around the city were made to be manned by eight thousand, but, after the capture of the garrison at Blakely, our forces were too much reduced to hold the place. When evacuated, the place was not threatened, but might have been completely invested in a week's time. All the heavy guns were destroyed: we destroyed seven twenty-four pounders. The total loss of guns must have amounted to three hundred. We left Mobile by boat, and each man with a musket. It is a heavy fall for us who have been in artillery for three years, and now find ourselves as infantrymen, much to our displeasure. As much as I dislike it, I shall keep my musket until something better turns up. ..."

The history of the battery, from first to last, is that of thorough soldiers, brave in battle, uncomplaining, cheerful, even jolly, under the most trying circumstances, bearing with equanimity the lesser ills of a soldier's life, with unshaken fortitude and undiminished devotion to " The Cause," indescribable hardships and discouragements.

Monday, February 6, 2012

30th Massachusetts' Tour in Louisiana, Part IV

Henry Warren Howe was a member of the 30th Massachusetts during the war. Howe's regiment was organized in December of 1861 and served in Virginia before it was sent to Ship Island. From February 12th - April 15th, the 30th Massachusetts garrisoned Ship Island. The regiment was attached to the Department of the Gulf in August 1862 and served in Louisiana until the summer of 1864. Howe wrote a book following the war titled, Life of Henry Warren Howe, Consisting of Diary and Letters Written During the Civil War, 1861-1865: A Condensed History of the Thirtieth Massachusetts Regiment and Its Flags, together with Genealogies of the Different Branches of the Family.

We pick up with Howe's March 1863 entries:

March 1, 1863. Sunday. Pleasant. Review, and a march afterward. Am detailed on brigade guard; my men are from the 161st and 174th New York Regiments; hard boys. The Captain of the Guard has our men, they being on the right. All quiet.
March 2, 1863. Pleasant. Relieved at 9 a. m. Made out my reports and sent to the Captain of the Guard. We received orders to turn in all company baggage; expect to be ordered up before Port Hudson soon. Troops are arriving from New Orleans. General Auger is here.
March 3, 1863. Pleasant. I am regimental officer of the day, the duty being to look after the regiments' camps. Our brigade was reviewed by General Auger; it made a good appearance.
March 4, 1863. Pleasant. Battalion drill, practised with blank cartridges. Our company has sent in pay rolls. I shall be much pleased to see the paymaster.
March 5, 1863. Pleasant. No drill in the morning. A match drill took place between our right flank company, Captain M. A. Ferris, and a company of marines from the Mississippi; our company won, consequently the stock of the old 30th took another rise. I never saw better company movements or execution of the manual. The regulars are "nowhere." We have seen only fourteen months' service.
March 6 and 7, 1863. Rainy. No drill. Nothing new.
March 8, 1863. Sunday. Pleasant. Review by General Dudley and a march down town.
March 9, 1863. Pleasant. We shall be off on our expedition in a day or two, probably to Port Hudson. Wrote home to-night.
March 10,1863. Cloudy. Have been expecting to move every day. Understand that three brigades have already gone.
March 11, 1863. Pleasant. Our division was reviewed by General Banks.
March 12, 1863. Pleasant. The second division and the third, Generals Emery and Grover, were reviewed by General Banks.
March 13, 1863. Emery's division left for Port Hudson to-day. The fleet have also sailed.
March 14, 1863. Orders to march this morning at 4 o'clock for Port Hudson. We are the rear division, two being in advance. Marched 11 miles, bivouacked at 1 p. m. Slept sound. Some firing from the river.
March 15, 1863. Sunday. Pleasant. Firing still heard from the gun-boats. At daybreak an explosion was heard, it must have been a gun-boat. We retired five miles and bivouacked for the night. Rained all night and was very disagreeable in camp.
March 16, 1863. I had a fly to a tent and slept quite comfortably. It cleared off in the morning. We are in the rear brigade, the other two divisions are two or three miles in advance. The explosion was on a steamer, the Mississippi; she ran aground opposite Port Hudson and a hot shot struck her, setting her on fire; she righted and floated down the river. Two gun-boats ran by the port. As yet we have accomplished nothing but to feel of the enemy; there is some skirmishing in the front.
March 17, 1863. Pleasant. Had orders to move with two days' rations; countermanded. Long roll sounded in the afternoon. Our brigade marched three miles through the swamp and woods to-day. No enemy.
March 18,1863. Pleasant. All quiet. Our regiment received orders to report to Baton Rouge, also the other regiments in our brigade. We are to go aboard transports, and proceed up the river and join two regiments there, on the other side of the river, opposite Port Hudson. We are to establish signal stations. Embarked at night, and went on; ran aground, and waited until morning. Three regiments go up. General Banks is with us. When we ran aground the levee gave way and the water has run from the river through the crevasse, submerging a large plantation. General Banks says he has accomplished his object, viz., running by Port Hudson, thus drawing troops away from Vicksburg to weaken that place in case of attack. Thirty lives were lost by the explosion of the steamer Mississippi's boiler. We are in light marching order on this expedition.
March 19, 1863. Pleasant. All are at work trying to get the boats oft. Succeeded, arrived and landed opposite and two miles below Port Hudson. There are six regiments here. In the afternoon, drew two days' rations. Captain and I with our company patrolled down the river, Provost Marshal Fuller going with us. Saw a large drove of cattle; tried to drive them in, but they were too wild. Marched six miles, returned at 8 p. m., with thirty chickens and a few eggs. Most of the plantations are deserted. Sugar is found and the United States Marshal confiscates it.
March 20, 1863. Friday. Pleasant. Ho! for another tramp. At 9 a. m., started with two regiments in light marching order and a section of a battery; proceeded down the river two miles, then marched inland. Very hard marching—bayous, cane brakes, etc., to push through. We crossed the bayous on trees felled, swam the horses over. Object of the expedition, to let the natives know we are around. Saw several alligators and snakes; not a very desirable country to live in. We gobbled up mules, horses, and everything we could get. The enemy have cut the levee on this side of the river, which will prevent our going up the river. We returned to camp at dark very tired. Rations of whiskey were served.
March 21, 1863. A detail of cavalry has gone up the river to see if it can communicate with our gun-boats, which ran by the batteries of the fort. No news yet. We can see five steamers near the enemy's works. One of our boats has been playing with the enemy. Our troops on the other side of the river have been drawn in to Baton Rouge.
March 22, 1863. Sunday. Nothing new. The 116th New York have returned to Baton Rouge. We expect to go up to-morrow. I don't think this expedition has accomplished much. I expect we shall be obliged to wait until the forces come down the river and co-operate with us. Some sport in our camp to-day by the boys trying to ride stubborn mules. Our regiment is quartered in negro huts on a plantation. Had a shower this afternoon.
March 23,1863. Rainy. Evacuated our bivouac, and took quarters in a negro shanty. Mail arrived; received a letter from Cyrus Latham. The Captain is on guard to-day. Confiscated cattle are being put aboard the steamers.
March 24, 1863. Cloudy and cool. Captain McGee's cavalry made a reconnoissance up the river, burned one steamer, captured some horses and four prisoners. The enemy fired at them from the other side of the river from their batteries. Received a letter from George Webster. Strange I do not get one from home.
March 25, 1863. Pleasant. I am on guard to-day. Nothing new.
March 26, 1863. Pleasant. Steamer arrived from Baton Rouge last night, and early this morning orders were issued to embark by sounding the long roll. I was notified to bring in my guard at the sound of the firing of a gun, which I did at 9 o'clock. Found that my regiment had already left camp. I reported aboard the steamer. We arrived at Baton Rouge at noon and occupied our old quarters.
March 27, 1863. Pleasant. Brigade drill in the morning. The afternoon was showery. General Grover's division was ordered to Donaldsonville; it is rumored that a large force of the enemy is in the vicinity, coming from Red River. I don't think our last expedition accomplished much. Started an officers' mess composed of eight.
March 28, 1863. Saturday. Rainy. No drill to-day. Many of us are troubled with bowel complaint. I have it.
March 29, 1863. Cloudy. Inspection and review in the morning. I had command of my company. Dress parade at sunset. The Captain is sick to-day.
March 30,1863. Pleasant. Company drill in the morning. Brigade drill in the afternoon.
March 31, 1863. Tuesday. Pleasant. Monthly inspection at 8.30, after which a march down town. I was put in command of Company H, as the officers were sick. Captain Creasy has leave of absence for twenty days to go North.

Coppens' Zouave Battalion

Coppens' Zouave Battalion
Lt. Colonel George Coppens (seated) and brother, Captain Marie Alfred Coppens.Image sold at auction on Cowan Auctions, for $14,375