LOUISIANA IN THE CIVIL WAR

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SCOPE & CONTENT

The goal of Louisiana in the Civil War is to provide an online resource of information and links to our great state's involvement in the war. Topics expected to be commonly covered are: Battles fought in Louisiana, battles that Louisianians participated in, unit histories, rosters, uniforms and equipment of Louisiana soldiers, personalities to include not only the leadership of the state and armies but the common soldier, flags and resources to research/read on the state's role in the war.



Louisiana in the Civil War strongly supports the input of the Civil War community. Submissions of stories, information, etc. are welcome and full credit will be given for what we share.

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Bourbeaux

Bourbeaux
Skirmish at Buzzard's Prairie (Chretien Point Plantation), October 15, 1863

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Sunday, March 14, 2010

LOUISIANA MOBILZES: Western Units

The second major call for Louisiana volunteers to "meet the call" came in March-April of 1862. U.S. Grant's capture of Forts Donelson and Henry in February, coupled with his quick landing at Pittsburg Landing near Corinth, Mississippi, caused a major rocus throughout south. In a quick jab, Grant was on the verge of capturing the entire Mississippi River defenses from Island No. 10 to Memphis. There was a widespread call by Confederate authorities for a major concentration of Confederate forces at Corinth.

Solid Red Lines Indicates Routes Taken by Louisiana Units to Corinth during February-March, 1862
Red Hashed Line Indicates Johnston's Retreat to Corinth
Solid Blue Lines Shows Pope's and Grant's Attack on the Mississippi & Tennessee Rivers


Various Louisiana units that were already organized and in the field were part of this move but there was also a call for volunteers across the state to meet the threat. From Mobile, Alabama, as part of Braxton Bragg's garrison, came the 1st Louisiana Regulars. Retreating from its outflanked position at Columbus, Kentucky came the 11th, 12th, 13th and 21st Regiments. Of these, the 21st Regiment would not reach Corinth until after the Battle of Shiloh and the 12th Louisiana was never sent to Corinth. Instead, the regiment went to Ft. Pillow and then to Memphis; never joining the Army of the Mississippi. Garrisoning the coastline of South Louisiana at Brashear City came the 4th Louisiana and from the city of New Orleans Daniel Ruggles was sent north with a brigade from that city's garrison consisting of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Regiments. Arriving later from New Orleans came the 20th Louisiana and arriving too late for Shiloh came the 25th Louisiana.

Desperate for as many men as possible, the Secretary of War authorized Governor Thomas O. Moore raise units for temporary service. Under this call, several 90 Day organizations were enlisted: The 24th Louisiana (Crescent Regiment), Orleans Guards Battalion and the 5th Company of the Washington Artillery.


Below is the list of Louisiana units serving in the Western Theater (east of Mississippi River). The list shows when the unit was mustered into service. It also shows from what location the unit came before arriving Corinth and also shows where they went if they did not go to Corinth. The units in red did not fight at Shiloh. All the units in black were part of the Army of the Mississippi at the Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862).

UNIT Location Stationed
1st Louisiana Regulars Pensacola
4th Louisiana Brashear City, La.
11th Louisiana Columbus, Ky.
12th Louisiana Columbus, Ky. ->Pillow ->Memphis
13th Louisiana Columbus, Ky.
16th Louisiana New Orleans
17th Louisiana New Orleans
18th Louisiana New Orleans
19th Louisiana New Orleans
20th Louisiana New Orleans
21st Louisiana Columbus, Ky. ->Pillow->Corinth
24th Louisiana New Orleans
25th Louisiana New Orleans->Memphis->Corinth
Orleans Guards Bn. New Orleans
5th Co. Washington Arty. New Orleans

Similar to the eastern units the western units underwent organizational changes and reorganization. By August of 1862, only 7 of the 15 Louisiana units were left in the Army of the Mississippi:
  • 1st Louisiana Regulars
  • 13th Louisiana
  • 16th Louisiana
  • 20th Louisiana
  • 25th Louisiana
  • Austin's Battalion (formed from the disbanded 11th Louisiana)
  • 5th Company WA

The other eight departed the army for a variety of reasons:
  • 4th Louisiana Regiment: Ordered to Edwards Station, Mississippi. It was reorganized and joined the river defenses for Vicksburg and Port Hudson.
  • 17th Louisiana Regiment: Transferred to Vicksburg where it became part of that city's garrison.
  • 18th Louisiana Regiment: Was detached to Pollard, Alabama, with the 19th Louisiana, where they became part of the Mobile defenses. It eventually was transferred to Louisiana where it rejoined the 24th Regiment as part of Alfred Mouton's Brigade.
  • 19th Louisiana Regiment: Detached to Pollard, Alabama, with the 18th Louisiana, and became part of the Mobile garrison.
  • Orleans Guards Battalion: Unit disbanded at the end of its 90 days. From its ashes a company was organized and attached to the 30th Louisiana.
  • 24th Louisiana Regiment (Crescent): The regiment was disbanded with orders to re-muster itself in south Louisiana.
  • 11th and 21st Louisiana Regiments: Were both disbanded at the end of July and early August. Members of the 11th Louisiana were dispersed between the 13th and 20th Louisiana Regiments. Born from the 11th Regiment was Austin's Sharpshooters Battalion. Members of the 21st Louisiana mostly went to the 1st Regulars except for one company that was transferred to the 20th Regiment.






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Coppens' Zouave Battalion

Coppens' Zouave Battalion
Lt. Colonel George Coppens (seated) and brother, Captain Marie Alfred Coppens.Image sold at auction on Cowan Auctions, for $14,375